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THE RAM

AND THE GOAT

Daniel Chapter 8

548 B.C

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IN the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first.

2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.

3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.

4 I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.

5 And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.

6 And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power.

7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.

8 Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.

9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.

10 And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.

11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.

12 And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.

13 Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?

14 And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

15 And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.

16 And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.

17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.

18 Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright.

19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be.

20 The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.

21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.

22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.

23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

24 And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.

25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.

26 And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days.

27 And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days; afterward I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Standing by the river a vision comes to Daniel regarding a ram with two horns and one was taller than the other. Later in the chapter he tells us that the ram is the Medo-Persion Empire and the two horns are the two powers and that the highest horn is the Persians. He sees the ram pushing West, North and South and none could stop him. He had conquered all regions from the Caspian Sea to Egypt. Then he sees a goat with one horn. Later in this chapter he identifies the goat as the king of Greece (Alexander the Great). Daniel sees the goat run into the ram with all his fury. When Alexander’s army met Darius on the field of battle at Arbela, Granicus and Issus, he had thirty-five thousand soldiers. Darius had five hundred thousand. In the first battle Alexander lost five hundred and Darius lost one hundred thousand. As the prophet says, "he ran into him with all his fury." The goat became great (ruled the world) and his horn was broken (Alexander died). four horns sprang up in it place (his four generals ruled the world).

After him a little horn sprang up from the Seleucid’s that ruled Syria. His name was Antiochus Epiphanies . He attacked the Holy Land, desecrated the temple, and took away the daily sacrifice for twenty three hundred days. The exposition will describe this foul character in detail.

 

 

EXPOSITION

 

1 In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first.

In the year 548 BC, which was the third year of the reign of Belshazzar, a vision came to Daniel. He was probably twenty-one when he was exiled and about eighty-six at this time. A vision may occur when awake or in a trance; however, the former one occurred when he was asleep Dan. 7:1. The representation would seem to have been make to pass before his mind in open day and when he was fully conscious.

 

2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.

Daniel was living in the Palace in the city of Shushan (Susa) in Persia. When he saw the vision, he was standing beside the Ulai River. At this time the Babylonian empire was still in existence and will continue nine more years. This was probably a summer palace. Daniel was a high ranking government official and therefore could be at any one of the palaces. This city is now a gloomy wilderness inhabited by lions, hyenas, and other beasts of prey.

 

3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.

In this vision he sees a Ram with two horns and one was higher than the other. In verse 20, Daniel says that the ram with the two horns are the two kings of Persia. So, this symbol represents the Medo-Persian empire. This empire consisted of 127 provinces extending from India to Ethiopiaž the boundaries of the then-known world. Two horns represent the two powers, the Medes and the Persians. The higher one represents Persia as the Persian power rose higher than the Medes. Verse 20, specifically tells us that the two horns are the two kings of Media and Persia.

 

4 I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.

In the previous verse we learned that the Ram was the Empire of Medo-Persia. This ram was extending its possessions in three directions. East is not mentioned because none of her conquests were in that direction. She pushed West and conquered Babylonia, Mesopotania, Syria, and Asia Minor. She pushed North and conquered Colchis, Armenia, Iberia, and the regions around the Caspian Sea. She pushed South and conquered the regions of Palestine, Ethiopia, Egypt, Libya. She became great and had subdued to herself a large portion of the world, extending from India to Ethiopia.

 

5 And as I was considering behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.

In the vision Daniel sees a male goat with one horn. The goat represented the Greek or Macedonian empire. The goat touched not the ground surely represents the swiftness of the movement of Alexander’s army.

The rough goat is the king of Grecia; and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Daniel 8:21

The Greeks were known as the goat people from antiquity. It is remarkable that Alexander’s son by Roxana was named Alexander Aegus, or the son of the goat. Some of Alexander’s successors are represented in their coins with goat’s horns. Bronze figures of goats have been found as symbols of Macedon.

When Alexander came to Jerusalem a group of priests met with him and showed him the prophecies of Daniel. He perceived that they referred to him and so he bestowed great favors upon the Jews. Here’s what Josephus wrote about this!

And when he understood that he was not far from the city, he went out in procession, with the priests and the multitude of the citizens. The procession was venerable, and the manner of it different from that of other nations. It reached to a place called Sapha, which name, translated into Greek, signifies a prospect, for you have thence a prospect both of Jerusalem and of the temple. And when the Phoenicians and the Chaldeans that followed him thought they should have liberty to plunder the city, and torment the high priest to death, which the king’s displeasure fairly Promised them, the very reverse of it happened; for Alexander, when he saw the multitude at a distance, in white garments, while the priests stood clothed with fine linen, and the high priest in purple and scarlet clothing, with his mitre on his head, having the golden plate whereon the name of God was engraved, he approached by himself, and adored that name, and first saluted the high priest. The Jews also did all together, with one voice, salute Alexander, and encompass him about; whereupon the kings of Syria and the rest were surprised at what Alexander had done, and supposed him disordered in his mind. However, Parmenio alone went up to him, and asked him how it came to pass that, when all others adored him, he should adore the high priest of the Jews? To whom he replied, "I did not adore him, but that God who hath honored him with his high priesthood; for I saw this very person in a dream, in this very habit, when I was at Dios in Macedonia, who, when I was considering with myself how I might obtain the dominion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay, but boldly to pass over the sea thither, for that he would conduct my army, and would give me the dominion over the Persians; whence it is that, having seen no other in that habit, and now seeing this person in it, and remembering that vision, and the exhortation which I had in my dream, I believe that I bring this army under the Divine conduct, and shall therewith conquer Darius, and destroy the power of the Persians, and that all things will succeed according to what is in my own mind." And when he had said this to Parmenio, and had given the high priest his right hand, the priests ran along by him, and he came into the city. And when he went up into the temple, he offered sacrifice to God, according to the high priest’s direction, and magnificently treated both the high priest and the priests. And when the Book of Daniel was showed him wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended. And as he was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present; but the next day he called them to him, and bid them ask what favors they pleased of him; whereupon the high priest desired that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers, and might pay no tribute on the seventh year. He granted all they desired. And when they entreated him that he would permit the Jews in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws also, he willingly promised to do hereafter what they desired. And when he said to the multitude, that if any of them would enlist themselves in his army, on this condition, that they should continue under the laws of their forefathers, and live according to them, he was willing to take them with him, many were ready to accompany him in his wars. Josephus Book 11 ch. 08 art. 5

 

 

6 And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power.

Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, conquer of the Persian Empire, was probably the greatest military geniuses of all times. He conquered the world in 12 years. And he gathered a mighty strong host and ruled over countries, and nations, and kings, who became tributaries unto him. On his way to conquer Tyre he passed through Jerusalem and the High Priest showed Alexander the prophecies of the prophet Daniel. When he read the sacred writings he was convinced that he was the person mentioned as the "Goat with one Horn." Armed with this information Alexander was ready to take on the Persian Empire. The greatest and most impressive battle of all was when Alex met the King of Persia by the name of Darius. While Darius awaited for reinforcements from Babylon, Alexander thrusted south across the rocky, volcanic uplands of Cappadocia under a burning August sun. Between them and the coastal plain stretched the great barrier of the Taurus Mountains. The only pass was a deep, twisting canyon. Alexander, understandably, anticipated trouble at the Gates, but there was no one guarding the pass thru the Taurus Mountains. Alexander said afterwards that he never had a more amazing piece of luck in his entire career. Thus, Alexander the Great defeated the Persian Empire, which ruled from India to Ethiopia, this included over 127 provinces. From this time forward no one could defeat Alexander.

 

7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.

This represents the fierceness and fury with which Alexander the Great attacked the Persians at the Granicus, Ittus, and Arbella, with which he overthrew and invaded their country. Alexander acted as if he were furiously enraged. On the eve of the battle, Darius sent ten chief relatives to plead or negotiate a peace agreement. After presenting their conditions to Alexander, he said, "Heaven cannot support two sons, nor the earth two masters." So, the goat with one horn stomped the ram with two horns. Any world history book will give you the full story of Alexander the Great conquering the world.

 

8 Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.

The Prophet said that when he was strong that the great horn (Alexander) would be broken and that four notable ones would rise up from the four winds. At the age of 33 He drank the Herculean cup and laid in a drunken coma for 10 days before he expired. The kingdom did not go to his sons but was divided among his four generals. They divided the empire into North, South , East and West (the four winds).

 

The following quote is from the First Book of Machabees. It informs us of Alexander’s parentage and homeland, that he was a noted warrior that he lived to the age of 33, and when he died he parted his kingdom among his honorable men.

And it happened, after that Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian, who came out of the land of Chettiim, had smitten Darius king of the Persians and Medes, that he reigned in his stead, the first over Greece, And made many wars, and won many strong holds, and slew the kings of the earth, And went through to the ends of the earth, and took spoils of many nations, insomuch that the earth was quiet before him; whereupon he was exalted and his heart was lifted up. And he gathered a mighty strong host and ruled over countries, and nations, and kings, who became tributaries unto him. And after these things he fell sick, and perceived that he should die. Wherefore he called his servants, such as were honourable, and had been brought up with him from his youth, and parted his kingdom among them, while he was yet alive. So Alexander reigned twelve years, and then died. 1 Machabees 1:1-7

 

9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.

Watch carefully, because Daniel says that out of one of them came forth a little horn. So, the little horn must come from one of the FOUR NOTABLE ONES of the previous verse. We therefore identify him as Antiochus Epiphanes. He was the younger son of Antiochus the Great, who usurped the kingdom, to the prejudice of his nephew Demetrius, son, of his elder brother Seleucus Philopator. I will try and lay the facts of history before you.

Alexander’s kingdom was now divided among his four generals. Seleucus ruled Syria and the East. Lysimachus ruled Blythnia and Thrace. Ptolemy Soter ruled Egypt, and Cassander ruled Macedonia. Barnes General History, Ancient, Mediaeval p. 153 (1883)

A mortal struggle of twenty-two years followed, during which these officers, fought, quarreled, grasped, and wrangled like loosened tigers in an amphitheater. The greed and jealousy of the generals, or kings as they were called, were equaled only by the treachery of their men. Finally, by the decisive battle of Ipsus (30l B.C.), the conflict was ended, and the following distribution of the territory made:

Ptolemy received Egypt, and conquered all of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Cyprus.

Lysimachus received Thrace and nearly all of Asia Minor

Seleucus received Syria and the East, and he afterward conquered Asia Minor (Lysimachus being slain.)

Cassander received Macedon and Greece.

The succession of princes who reigned in Antioch, from Seleucus to Antiochus Epiphanes, were as follows: By presenting the succession of kings you will readily see that Antiochus Epiphanies was out of one of the four horns.

1 Seleucus Nicator, B.C. 312-280.

2 Antiochus Sotor, his son, 280-261

3 Antiochus Theos, his son, 261-247

4 Seleucus Callinicus, his son, 247-226

5 (Alexander), or Seleucus Ceraunus, his son, 226-223.

6 Antiochus the Great, his brother, 223-187

7 Antiochus Epiphanes, his brother, 176-164

It was not long until two of the four divisions absorbed the other two. These two remain: Syria and Egypt. From this point on, Daniel referred to these as the Kingdom of the North (Syria) and Kingdom of the South (Egypt). There was constant hostility toward each other. This verse has to do with the Kingdom of Syria, and one of its kings, who was one of the most vile and wicked men in history. He pushed South toward Egypt, East toward Persia, and toward the pleasant land, (Palestine).

 

10 And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them

The following quote from Josephus shows how Antiochus Epiphanes fulfills the prophecy of Daniel 8:9-27. It will further expose all the futuristic interpretations that are prevalent today.

At the same time that Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, had a quarrel with the sixth Ptolemy about his right to the whole country of Syria, a great sedition fell among the men of power in Judea, and they had a contention about obtaining the government; while each of those that were of dignity could not endure to be subject to their equals. However, Onias, one of the high priests, got the better, and cast the sons of Tobias out of the city; who fled to Antiochus, and besought him to make use of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea. The king being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army, and took their city by force, and slew a great multitude of those that favored Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He also spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and six months. But Onias, the high priest, fled to Ptolemy, and received a place from him in the Nomus of Heriopolis, where he built a city resembling Jerusalem, and a temple that was like its temple concerning which we shall speak more in its proper place hereafter. Now Antiochus was not satisfied either with his unexpected taking the City, or with its pillage, or with the great slaughter he had made there; but being overcome with his violent passions, and remembering what he had suffered during the siege, he compelled the Jews to dissolve the laws of their country, and to keep their infants uncircumcised, and to sacrifice swine’s flesh upon the altar; against which they all opposed themselves, and the most approved among them were put to death. Bacchides also, who was sent to keep the fortresses, having these wicked commands, joined to his own natural barbarity, indulged all sorts of the extremist wickedness, and tormented the worthiest of the inhabitants, man by man, and threatened their city every day with open destruction, till at length he provoked the poor sufferers by the extremity of his wicked doings to avenge themselves. Josephus The Wars of The Jews. Book 1 Art.1,2.

 

11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.

I will be quoting extensively from the books of First and Second Machabees, which contains the history of this period. No one can understand this section of the book of Daniel who has not read the Machabees. A little information will be given at this time concerning these books. These books contain the history of the people of God under the command of Judas Machabeus and his brethren. These books were not received by the Jews as canonical, but were received as history. However, during the middle ages, the Catholic Church at the council of Florence (1439) and council of Trent (1545-1563) deemed them canonical and added them to the Old Testament. They are not found today in any of our Protestant Bibles. The author of this commentary regards them as accurate history and there can be no doubt of their authenticity.

And after that Antiochus had smitten Egypt, he returned again in the hundred forty and third year, and went up against Israel and Jerusalem with a great multitude, And entered proudly into the sanctuary, and took away the golden altar, and the candlestick of light, and all the vessels thereof, And the table of the shewbread, and the pouring vessels, and the vials. and the censers of gold, and the veil, and the crown, and the golden ornaments that were before the temple, all which he pulled off. He took also the silver and the gold, and the precious vessels: also he took the hidden treasures which he found. And when he had taken all away, he went into his own land, having made a great massacre, and spoken very proudly. Therefore there was a great mourning in Israel, in every place where they were; So that the princes and elders mourned, the virgins and young men were made feeble, and the beauty of women was changed.                     I Machabees 1:20-26

 

12 And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practiced, and prospered.

The following composite of historical facts and forensic evidence should convince any Bible believer that Antiochus Epiphanes fulfills these scriptures.

And pollute the sanctuary and holy people: and should forbid holocausts and sacrifices and atonements to be made in the temple of God. That they should also leave their children uncircumcised, and make their souls abominable with all manner of uncleanness and profanation: To the end they might forget the law, and change all the ordinances. And whosoever would not do according to the commandment of the king, he said, he should die. In the selfsame manner wrote he to his whole kingdom, and appointed overseers over all the people, commanding the cities of Juda to sacrifice, city by city. And when they had rent in pieces the books of the law which they found, they burnt them with fire.         1 Machabees 1:46-56

 

13 Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?

This conversation was regarding the time limit that God would permit the TRANSGRESSION OF ABOMINATION to last. The collation of historical facts presented in this commentary is overwhelming A copy of the books of first and second Machabees is included as a appendix of this book.

And whosoever was found with any the book of the testament, or if any committed to the law, the king's commandment was, that they should put him to death. Thus did they by their authority unto the Israelites every month, to as many as were found in the cities. Now the five and twentieth day of the month they did sacrifice upon the idol altar, which was upon the altar of God.                1 Machabees 1: 57-59

Now the fifteenth day of the month Casleu, in the hundred forty and fifth year, they set up the abomination of desolation upon the altar, and builded idol altars throughout the cities of Juda. 1 Machabees l:54

For it was a place to lie in wait against the sanctuary, and an evil adversary to Israel. Thus they shed innocent blood on every side of the sanctuary, and defiled it: Insomuch that the inhabitants of Jerusalem fled because of them: whereupon the city was made an habitation of strangers, and became strange to those that were born in her; and her own children left her. Her sanctuary was laid waste like a wilderness, her feasts were turned into mourning, her sabbaths into reproach her honour into contempt. As had been her glory, so was her dishonour increased, and her excellency was turned into mourning. 1 Machabees 1:36-40

Also that they had pulled down the abomination, which he had set up upon the altar in Jerusalem, and that they had compassed about the sanctuary with high walls, as before, and his city Bethsura. 1 Machabees 6:7

 

14 And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

This calculation would equal six years and one hundred and ten days. From the time that Antiochus Epiphanes entered Jerusalem and took away the daily sacrifice till the cleansing of the temple was 2300 days. 171 B.C. to 165 B.C. Wow! God’s Word and history’s connection proves the prophecy true in every detail.

Maccabeus and his company, the Lord guiding them, recovered the temple and the city: But the altars which the heathen had built in the open street, and also the chapels, they pulled down. And having cleansed the temple they made another altar, and striking stones they took fire out of them, and offered a sacrifice after two years, and set forth incense, and lights, and shewbread. When that was done, they fell flat down, and besought the Lord that they might come no more into such troubles; but if they sinned any more against him, that he himself would chasten them with mercy, and that they might not be delivered unto the blasphemous and barbarous nations. Now upon the same day that the strangers profaned the temple, on the very same day it was cleansed again, even the five and twentieth day of the same month, which is Casleu. And they kept the eight days with gladness, as in the feast of the tabernacles, remembering that not long afore they had held the feast of the tabernacles, when as they wandered in the mountains and dens like beasts. Therefore they bare branches, and fair boughs, and palms also, and sang psalms unto him that had given them good success in cleansing his place. They ordained also by a common statute and decree, That every year those days should be kept of the whole nation of the Jews. And this was the end of Antiochus, called Epiphanes. 2 Machabees 10:1-9

They established a feast of Dedication, and each year celebrated it. We are told in John 10:22 that Jesus was in Jerusalem at the feast of Dedication and walked in the Temple in Solomon’s porch.

 

15 And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.

Under divine orders, someone appears before Daniel in the form of a human being. I will reserve comments on this person until chapter ten, verses five and six.

 

16 And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.

He looked like a man, he talked like a man but he had a divine mission, which was to instruct Gabriel to reveal the meaning of the vision to Daniel.

 

17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.

It is evident and collaborated with scripture truth that the time of the end is not the end of the world, but the latter end of the verse declares that the time of the end shall be the vision. In other words 150 years later Antiochus Epiphanies who is the main subject of the vision will be brought down to the grave and the temple rededicated and temple worship restored.

 

18 Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright.

Daniel was lying face down, unconscious, as though he was in a trance or a dead faint. Now the angel Gabriel touches him and set him in an upright position.

 

19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be.

Wow! Gabriel is going to reveal the remaining events of the scene. The rest of the chapter will reveal the secret. There is to be an end to the Medo-Persian, Grecian Empire and of the little horn. The vision ended with the downfall of the little horn (Antiochus Epiphanes). This is "THE END" that verse 17 and 19 are referring too. It is the end of the INDIGNATION created by Antiochus Epiphanes. Some, thinking there is only one "End" in God’s word, misinterpret this end, supposing it to be the end of the world. This interpretation simply does not fit and lacks substance, particularly when trying to connect the details

 

20 The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.

Nothing could be plainer. Cyrus and Darius were the Kings of Media and Persia.

 

21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.

No wonder Alexander the Great liked the book of Daniel. He could plainly see himself in the prophecy. Daniel, thru the telescope of prophecy, saw the rise of Alexander the Great about 200 years before it happened!

 

22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.

The single horn is broken and from its roots comes four horns. Alexander the Great was broken and his four generals divided the empire. Seleucus ruled Syria and the East. Lysimachus ruled Blthynia and Thrace, Ptolemy Soter ruled Egypt, and Cassander ruled Macedonia.

 

23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

Please note that "in the latter time of their kingdom" a king of fierce countenance should stand up. This give us more proof that it was Antiochus Epiphanes. The following will provide verification of the people, date, and events to establish evidence that it could be none other than Antiochus Epiphanes.

And there came out of them a wicked root Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king, who had been an hostage at Rome, and he reigned in the hundred and thirty and seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks. In those days went there out of Israel wicked men, who persuaded many, saying, Let us go and make a covenant with the heathen that are round about us: for since we departed from them we have had much sorrow. So this device pleased them well. Then certain of the people were so forward herein, that they went to the king, who gave them licence to do after the ordinances of the heathen: Whereupon they built a place of exercise at Jerusalem according to the customs of the heathen: And made themselves uncircumcised, and forsook the holy covenant, and joined themselves to the heathen, and were sold to do mischief. Now when the kingdom was established before Antiochus, he thought to reign over Egypt that he might have the dominion of two realms. Wherefore he entered into Egypt with a great multitude, with chariots, and elephants, and horsemen, and a great navy, And made war against Ptolemee king of Egypt: but Ptolemee was afraid of him, and fled; and many were wounded to death. Thus they got the strong cities in the land of Egypt and he took the spoils thereof. Moreover king Antiochus wrote to his whole kingdom, that all should be one people, And every one should leave his laws: so all the heathen agreed according to the commandment of the king. Yea, many also of the Israelites consented to his religion, and sacrificed unto idols, and profaned the sabbath. For the king had sent letters by messengers unto Jerusalem and the cities of Juda that they should follow the strange laws of the land, And forbid burnt offerings, and sacrifice, and drink offerings, in the temple; and that they should profane the sabbaths and festival days: And pollute the sanctuary and holy people: Set up altars, and groves, and chapels of idols, and sacrifice swine's flesh, and unclean beasts:  1 Machabees 1:10-47

Then many of the people were gathered unto them, to wit every one that forsook the law; and so they committed evils in the land;  1 Machabees 1:52

And they called upon the Lord, that he would look upon the people that was trodden down of all; and also pity the temple profaned of ungodly men;               2 Machabees 8:2

 

24 And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.

At which time according to the commandment they (Antiochus Epiphanes et.al) put to death certain women, that had caused their children to be circumcised. And they hanged the infants about their necks, and rifled their houses, and slew them that had circumcised them. Howbeit many in Israel were fully resolved and confirmed in themselves not to eat any unclean thing. Wherefore the rather to die, that they might not be defiled with meats, and that they might not profane the holy covenant: so then they died. And there was very great wrath upon Israel.        I Machabees 1:60-64

It came to pass also, that seven brethren with their mother were taken, and compelled by the king against the law to taste swine's flesh, and were tormented with scourges and whips. But one of them that spake first said thus, What wouldest thou ask or learn of us? we are ready to die, rather than to transgress the laws of our fathers. Then the king, being in a rage, commanded pans and caldrons to be made hot: Which forthwith being heated, he commanded to cut out the tongue of him that spake first, and to cut off the utmost parts of his body, the rest of his brethren and his mother looking on. Now when he was thus maimed in all his members, he commanded him being yet alive to be brought to the fire, and to be fried in the pan: and as the vapour of the pan was for a good space dispersed, they exhorted one another with the mother to die manfully, saying thus, The Lord God looketh upon us, and in truth hath comfort in us, as Moses in his song, which witnessed to their faces, declared, saying, And he shall be comforted in his servants. So when the first was dead after this number, they brought the second to make him a mocking stock: and when they had pulled off the skin of his head with the hair, they asked him, Wilt thou eat, before thou be punished throughout every member of thy body? But he answered in his own language, and said, No. Wherefore he also received the next torment in order, as the former did. And when he was at the last gasp, he said, Thou like a fury takest us out of this present life, but the King of the world shall raise us up, who have died for his laws, unto everlasting life. 2 Machabees 7:1-9

He sent also that detestable ringleader Apollonius with an army of two and twenty thousand, commanding him to slay all those that were of perfect age, and to sell the women and the younger sort. 2 Machabees 5:24

 

25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.

Antiochus’ policy was slick, he pretended and promised peace. Then, when he caught them off guard he would destroy them. He ran his course and was finally destroyed. A human hand never touched him. The Eternal God, that he had opposed, struck him with a plague unlike any ever described in medical journals. This man literally rotted in his tracts. He stank so bad that he himself could not stand the smell. In the final days of his life he was carried in a horse litter (A horse litter was composed of two shafts that were fastened to the collar of the horse and extended about three feet behind the horse to which were affixed a type of lounge) and he pleaded with God (to no avail) that if God would spare his life he would renovate and restore the temple beyond its original glory, become a Jewish proselyte, have himself circumcised, give all Jews civil rights, and serve the God he had blasphemed. But, God broke him without human hand, and he died in a strange land in unparallel agony.

And the man, that thought a little afore he could reach to the stars of heaven, no man could endure to carry for his intolerable stink. 2 Machabees 9:10

Who coming to Jerusalem, and pretending peace, did forbear till the holy day of the sabbath, when taking the Jews keeping holy day, he commanded his men to arm themselves. And so he slew all them that were gone to the celebrating of the sabbath, and running through the city with weapons slew great multitudes.              2 Machabees 5:25,26

And I thought with myself, Into what tribulation am I come, and how great a flood of misery is it, wherein now I am! for I was bountiful and beloved in my power. But now I remember the evils that I did at Jerusalem, and that I took all the vessels of gold and silver that were therein, and sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judea without a cause. I Machabees 6:11.12

But the Lord Almighty, the God of Isreal, smote him with an incurable and invisible plague: or as soon as he had spoken these words, a pain of the bowels that was remediless came upon him, and sore torments of the inner parts; And that most justly: for he had tormented other men's bowels with many and strange torments. Howbeit he nothing at all ceased from his bragging, but still was filled with pride, breathing out fire in his rage against the Jews, and commanding to haste the journey: but it came to pass, And thus he that a little afore thought he might command the waves of the sea, (so proud was he beyond the condition of man) and weigh the high mountains in a balance, was now cast on the ground, and carried in an horse litter, showing forth unto all the manifest power of God. So that the worms rose up out of the body of this wicked man, and whiles he lived in sorrow and pain, his flesh fell away, and the filthiness of his smell was noisome to all his army. And the man, that thought a little afore he could reach to the stars of heaven, no man could endure to carry for his intolerable stink. He therefore, being plagued, he began to leave off his great pride, and to come to the knowledge of himself by the scourge of God, his pain increasing every moment. And when he himself could not abide his own smell, he said these words, It is meet to be subject unto God, and that a man that is mortal should not proudly think of himself if he were God. This wicked person vowed also unto the Lord, who now no more would have mercy upon him, saying thus, That the holy city (to the which he was going in haste to lay it even with the ground, and to make it a common buryingplace,) he would set at liberty: And as touching the Jews, whom he had judged not worthy so much as to be buried, but to be cast out with their children to be devoured of the fowls and wild beasts, he would make them all equals to the citizens of Athens: And the holy temple, which before he had spoiled, he would garnish with goodly gifts, and restore all the holy vessels with many more, and out of his own revenue defray the charges belonging to the sacrifices: Yea, and that also he would become a Jew himself, and go through all the world that was inhabited, and declare the power of God.   2 Machabees 9:5-17

Thus the murderer and blasphemer having suffered most grievously, as he entreated other men, so died he a miserable death in a strange country in the mountains. 2 Machabees 9:28

Every bridegroom took up lamentation, and she that sat in the marriage chamber was in heaviness, The land also was moved for the inhabitants thereof, and all the house of Jacob was covered with confusion. And after two years fully expired the king sent his chief collector of tribute unto the cities of Juda, who came unto Jerusalem with a great multitude, And spake peaceable words unto them, but all was deceit: for when they had given him credence, he fell suddenly upon the city, and smote it very sore, and destroyed much people of Israel. And when he had taken the spoils of the city, he set it on fire, and pulled down the house, But the women and children took they captive, and possessed the cattle. Then builded they the city of David with a great and strong wall, and with mighty towers, and made it a strong hold for them. And they put therein a sinful nation, wicked men, and fortified themselves therein. They stored it also with armour and victuals, and when they had gathered together the spoils of Jerusalem, they laid them up there, and so they became a sore snare and walls thereof on every side.                   1 Machabees 1:27-37

So that the worms rose up out of the body of this wicked man, and whiles he lived in sorrow and pain, his flesh fell away, and the filthiness of his smell was noisome to all his army. 2 Machabees 9:9

 

26 And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days.

Daniel is to keep the vision secret (for the time being) for it pertains to many days hence. He will tell the full story in chapter eleven

 

27 And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days; afterward I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it.

Daniel lost consciousness; he was exhausted, ill for several days, too sick to go to work and told his boss that he was unable to discharge his duties. The vision had taken its toll on Daniel both mentally and physically.

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